Syllabus & Subjects For the Exams

What is the syllabus and how to study?

CA foundation course


CA Foundation is indeed the foundation step in your CA journey. It is therefore important to clearly understand the CA foundation syllabus and subjects, as it will help you gain an insight into what you can expect during the exams and prepare for it accordingly.

You can get access to the ICAI’s complete material to the CA foundation here

It is natural that most students face a lot of difficulty in understanding these core subjects. Also, the learning curve can also be very stressful and scary. If you are feeling the same way, then you don’t have to anymore. 

We can certainly help you with the learning process. Along with the free notes that you can find on our website and our App 1FIN, you can also join our CA foundation course which has brilliant faculty, who explain every concept and subject in a detailed and easy-to-understand manner.

As a student, you need a way to easily understand and comprehend tough concepts, so you can retain the knowledge for a long time. That’s why we utilize various visualization techniques and methods to break down each concept and give you the crux of the matter in a simplified manner. 

We already know that the CA foundation is conducted thrice every year in the months of January, June and September. So, it is time to start preparing for your exams by understanding the syllabus properly and by utilizing all the available material.

Also, at the end of this list, you will find some important information related to preparation. So, do check it out.

CA Foundation Syllabus

Paper 1 - Accounting - Syllabus

Paper 1: Accounting


1. Theoretical Framework

Meaning and Scope of accounting

5% - 10%

Accounting Concepts, Principles and Conventions

Capital and revenue expenditure, Capital and revenue receipts, Contingent assets and contingent liabilities

Accounting Policies

Accounting as a Measurement Discipline – Valuation Principles, Accounting Estimates

Accounting Standards – Concepts and Objectives

2. Accounting Process

(i) Recording accounting transactions: principles of double entry book-keeping,
books of original entry - journal,subsidiary books, cash book, edger-format, posting from journal and subsidiary books, balancing of accounts.









Preparation of Trial Balance

Rectification of Errors

3. Bank Reconciliation Statement

Introduction, reasons and preparation of bank reconciliation statement.

4. Inventories

Cost of inventory, Net realizable value, Basis and technique of Inventory Valuation and Record System

5. Depreciation and Amortisation

Tangible and Intangible assets - Concepts, Methods of computation and accounting treatment of depreciation/ amortization, Change in depreciation methods

6. Bills of exchange and Promissory notes 

Meaning of bills of exchange and promissory notes and their accounting treatment; accommodation bills.

7. Preparation of Final accounts of  Sole Proprietors


Elements of financial statements, closing adjustment entries, trading account, profit and loss account and balance sheet of manufacturing and non-manufacturing entities





8. Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organization

Significance and preparation of receipt and payment account, income and 
expenditure account and balance sheet, difference between profit and 
loss account and income and expenditure account. 

9. Accounts from Incomplete Records

(Excluding preparation of accounts based on ratios)

10. Partnership and LLP Accounts

(i) Final accounts of partnership firms and LLP’s
(ii) Admission, retirement and death of a partner including treatment of goodwill
(iii) Dissolution of partnership firms and LLP’s including piecemeal distribution of assets


11. Company Accounts

Definition of shares and debentures


Issue of shares and debentures, forfeiture of shares, re-issue of forfeited shares

Redemption of preference shares and debentures (excluding purchase and redemption of own debentures and sinking fund method)

 Accounting for bonus issue and right issue

Paper 2 - Syllabus


Paper 2: Business Laws


1. Indian Regulatory Framework

Major Regulatory Bodies such as Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Corporate Affairs, SEBI, RBI, IBBI, Ministry of Law and Justice etc.


2. The Indian Contract Act, 1872

General nature of contract, Consideration, Other essential 
elements of a valid contract, Performance of contract, Breach of contract, Contingent and Quasi Contract, Contract of Indemnity and Guarantee, Contract of Bailment and Pledge, Contract of Agency


3. The Sale of Goods Act, 1930

Formation of the contract of sale,Conditions and Warranties, Transfer of ownership and Delivery of goods, Unpaid seller and his rights. 


4. The Indian Partnership Act, 1932

General Nature of Partnership, Rights and Duties of partners, 
Reconstitution of firms, Registration and Dissolution of a firm.


5. The Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008

Introduction-covering nature and scope, Essential features, 
Characteristics of LLP, Incorporation and Differences with other forms of organizations.


6. The Companies Act, 2013

Essential features of company, Corporate veil theory, Classes of companies, Types of share capital, Incorporation of company, Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association, Doctrine of Indoor Management

10% - 15%

Note: Should new legislation be implemented in replacement of current laws, the syllabus will incorporate the relevant sections of such new legislation from the dates announced by the Institute.

The particular topics included or excluded in the syllabus will be updated annually through Study Guidelines as necessary.



Paper 3 - Syllabus


Paper 3 consists of three parts:

  • Part A: Business Mathematics
  • Part B: Logical Reasoning
  • Part C: Statistics

Paper 3: Quantitative Aptitude (100 Marks)


Part A: Business Mathematics (40 Marks) 


1. Ratio and proportion, Indices and Logarithms

Ratio and proportion and Time and work-related problems, Laws of Indices, Exponents and Logarithms and Anti Logarithms.




2. Equations

Equations: Linear Simultaneous linear equations up to three variables, Quadratic and Cubic equations in one variable. Applications in Business related problems

3. Linear Inequalities

Linear Inequalities: Linear Inequalities in one and two variables and the solution space

4. Mathematics of Finance 

  • Simple Interest
  • Compound interest
  • Nominal and Effective Rate of Interest
  • Present Value
  • Net Present Value
  • Future Value
  • Perpetuity
  • Annuities
  • Sinking Funds
  • Calculating of EMI
  • Calculations of Returns: Nominal and Effective rate of Return
  • Compound Annual growth rate (CAGR)


5. Permutations and Combinations

Basic concepts of Permutations and combinations: Introduction, the 
factorial, permutations, results, circular permutations, permutations with 
restrictions, Combinations with standard results





6. Sequence and Series

Introduction Sequences, Series, Arithmetic and Geometric progression, Relationship between AM and GM and Sum of n terms of special series and Business Applications.

7. Sets, Relations, and Functions. Basics of Limits and Continuity functions.



8. Basic applications of Differential and Integral calculus in Business and Economics (Excluding the trigonometric applications).


Part B: Logical Reasoning (20 Marks)



9. Number series coding and Decoding and odd man out


10. Direction Tests


11. Seating Arrangements


12. Blood Relations


Part C: Statistics (40 Marks)


13. Unit 1: Statistical Representation of Data

Diagrammatic representation of data, Frequency distribution, Graphical
representation of Frequency Distribution –Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Ogive, Pie-chart




13. Unit:2 Sampling

Basic principles of sampling theory, comparison between sample survey and complete enumeration, some important terms associated sampling types of sampling, sampling and non-sampling errors.

14. Measures of Central tendency and Dispersion

Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion: Mean Median, Mode, Mean Deviation, Quartiles and Quartile Deviation, Standard Deviation, Co-efficient of Variation, Coefficient of Quartile Deviation

15. Probability

Independent and dependent events; mutually exclusive events. Total and Compound Probability and Bayes’ theorem



16. Theoretical Distributions

Random variables, Discrete and Continuous Random variables, Expectation of a discrete random variable, Theoretical Distributions: Binomial Distribution, Poisson distribution – basic application and Normal Distribution – basic applications.

17. Correlation and Regression

Scatter diagram, Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation Rank Correlation, Regression lines, Regression equations, Regression coefficients


18. Index Numbers

Uses of Index Numbers, Problems involved in construction of Index Numbers, Methods of construction of Index Numbers. BSE SENSEX and NSE


Paper 4 - Syllabus


PAPER – 4: BUSINESS ECONOMICS (100 Marks) Weightage
1. Introduction to Business Economics Meaning and scope of Business Economics Basic Problems of an Economy and Role of Price Mechanism. 5% 
2. Theory of Demand and Supply Meaning and Determinants of Demand, Law of Demand and Elasticity of Demand – Price, Income and Cross Elasticity Theory of Consumer’s Behaviour –Indifference Curve approach 
Meaning and Determinants of Supply, Law of Supply and Elasticity of Supply, Market Equilibrium and Social Efficiency.
3. Theory of Production and Cost Meaning and Factors of Production, Short Run and Long Run 
Law of Production – The Law of Variable Proportions and Laws of Returns to Scale, Producer’s Equilibrium Concepts of Costs– Short-run and long -run costs, Average and Marginal Costs, Total, Fixed and Variable Costs
4. Price Determination in Different Markets Market Structures: Perfect Competition, and Monopoly Monopolistic Competition. Using Game Theory to study Oligopoly.
Price Determination in these Markets Price- Output Determination under different Market Forms
5. Determination of National Income a. Macro Economic Aggregates and Measurement of National 
b. Determination of National Income: Keynes’ Two Sector Basic Model, Three Sectors and Four Sectors Models
6. Business Cycles
  • Meaning
  • Phases
  • Features
  • Causes behind these Cycles
7. Public Finance

a. Fiscal functions: An Overview, Centre and State Finance
b Market Failure/ Government intervention to correct market failure.
c. Process of budget making: Sources of Revenue, Expenditure
Management, and Management of Public Debt.
d. Fiscal Policy

8. Money Market a. Concept of Money Demand
b. Important theories of Demand for Money
c. Concept of Money Supply, Cryptocurrency and other new terminology
d. Monetary Policy
 9. International Trade a. Theories of International Trade including theories of intra-industry trade by Krugman.
b. Trade Policy – The Instruments of Trade Policy
c. Trade Negotiations
d. Exchange Rates and its economic effects
e. International Capital Movements: Foreign Direct Investment
10. Indian Economy  (Before 1950- Chanakya and Nand Vansh, OECD Paper (1950-1991), Basic knowledge 1991 Onwards 10%

Note: A maximum deviation of ±5% is permitted in the specified section-wise weightage.


This is the entire course structure along with its weightage. Remember to study each subject in depth because they not only lay the foundation for your future but they also will help you score good marks.

Just a few instructions for you to remember: 

  • The time duration for papers 1 & 2 is 3 hours; Papers 3 & 4 have a time duration of 2 hours each.
  • Paper 1 and Paper 2 will be of the subjective type and Paper 3 and Paper 4 will be of objective type.
  • The objective type of questions will have negative marking for wrong answers. 1/4th of the marks will be deducted for each wrong answer.
  • Candidates must score a minimum of 40% marks in each paper and a minimum of  50% marks in aggregate of all the papers to pass the CA foundation exam.
  • CA Foundation exam is an offline exam and is conducted thrice a year. The question paper will be either in English or Hindi languages.

Now that you have all the information needed, start preparing for your exam strategically. You can check out our free CA foundation demo course here and enroll in the full course here. All the very best!! 

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