Syllabus & Subjects For the Exams

What is the syllabus and how to study?

CA foundation course


CA Foundation is indeed the foundation step in your CA journey. It is therefore important to clearly understand the CA foundation syllabus and subjects, as it will help you gain an insight into what you can expect during the exams and prepare for it accordingly.

You can get access to the ICAI’s complete material to the CA foundation here

It is natural that most students face a lot of difficulty in understanding these core subjects. Also, the learning curve can also be very stressful and scary. If you are feeling the same way, then you don’t have to anymore. 

We can certainly help you with the learning process. Along with the free notes that you can find on our website and our App 1FIN, you can also join our CA foundation course which has brilliant faculty, who explain every concept and subject in a detailed and easy-to-understand manner.

As a student, you need a way to easily understand and comprehend tough concepts, so you can retain the knowledge for a long time. That’s why we utilize various visualization techniques and methods to break down each concept and give you the crux of the matter in a simplified manner. 

We already know that the CA foundation is conducted twice every year in the months of May and November. So, it is time to start preparing for your exams by understanding the syllabus properly and by utilizing all the available material.

Also, at the end of this list, you will find some important information related to preparation. So, do check it out.

Paper 1 - Syllabus

CA Foundation Syllabus

Paper 1: Principles and Practices of Accounting


1. Theoretical Framework

Meaning and Scope of accounting

5% - 10%

Accounting Concepts, Principles and Conventions

Accounting terminology - Glossary

Capital and revenue expenditure, Capital and revenue receipts, Contingent assets and contingent liabilities

Accounting Policies

Accounting as a Measurement Discipline – Valuation Principles, Accounting Estimates

Accounting Standards – Concepts and Objectives

Indian Accounting Standards – Concepts and Objectives

2. Accounting Process

Books of Accounts

25% - 30%

Preparation of Trial Balance

Rectification of Errors

3. Bank Reconciliation Statement

Introduction, reasons, preparation of bank reconciliation statement

4. Inventories

Cost of inventory, Net realizable value, Basis and technique of inventory valuation and record keeping

5. Concept and Accounting of Depreciation

Concepts, Methods of computation and accounting treatment of depreciation, Change in depreciation methods

6. Accounting for Special Transactions

Bills of exchange and promissory notes

15% - 20%

Sale of goods on approval or return basis


Average due Date

Account Current

7. Final Accounts of Sole Proprietors

Elements of financial statements, Closing Adjustment Entries, Trading Account, Profit

and Loss Account and Balance Sheet of Manufacturing and Non-manufacturing entities

30% - 40%

8. Partnership Accounts

Final Accounts of Partnership Firms

Admission, Retirement and Death of a Partner including Treatment of Goodwill

Introduction to LLPs and Distinction of LLPs from Partnership

9. Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations

Significance of Receipt and Payment Account, Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet, Difference between Profit and Loss Account and Income and Expenditure Account. Preparation of Receipt and Payment Account, Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet

10. Introduction to Company Accounts

Definition of shares and debentures

10% - 15%

Issue of shares and debentures, forfeiture of shares, re-issue of forfeited shares

Statement of Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet as per Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013

Paper 2 - Syllabus

Paper 2: Business Laws and Business Correspondence and Reporting


Section A: Business Laws (60 Marks)

The Indian Contract Act, 1872

25% - 35%

The Sale of Goods Act, 1930

20% - 25%

The Indian Partnership Act, 1932

20% - 25%

The Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008

5% - 10%

The Companies Act, 2013

15% - 20%

Section B: Business Correspondence and Reporting (40 Marks)

Part I: Communication

10% - 15%

1. Communication

(i) Types

(ii) Directions

(iii) Network

(iv) Process

(v) Problems

(vi) Barriers

(vii) Types of Communication

(viii) Sample Questions with Answers

(ix) Exercises

Part II : Sentence Types and Word Power

20% - 30%

2. Sentence Types (Direct-Indirect, Active-Passive Speech)

(i) Sentence: Definition

(ii) Classification of sentence based on connotation

(iii) Sentence Structure

(iv) Types of sentences

(v) Direct-Indirect Speech

(vi) Active Passive Voice: Introduction

(vii) Verbs Voice Active or passive

(viii) Exercises

3. Vocabulary Root Words, Synonyms, Antonyms, Prefixes, Suffixes), Phrasal verbs, Collocations and Idioms

(i) Introduction

(ii) Significance of improving vocabulary

(iii) How to improve vocabulary

(iv) Root words

(v) Synonyms and Antonyms

(vi) Words formed by using Prefixes

(vii) Words formed by using Suffixes

(viii) Phrasal verbs

(ix) Collocations

(x) Idioms

(xi) Exercises

Part III : Comprehension Passages and Note Making

20% - 30%

4. Comprehension Passages

(i) Introduction to Comprehension Passages

(ii) Points to ponder

(iii) Sample Passages with answers

(iv) Exercises

5. Note Making

(i) Introduction to Note Making

(ii) Significance of Note Making

(iii) Detailed Format Heading(Title)

(iv) Steps to Comprehend and summarize text

(v) Helpful Hints

(vi) Sample Passages with Notes

(vii) Exercises

Part IV : Developing Writing Skills

35% - 40%

6. Introduction to Basic Writing

(i) Introduction

(ii) Process of writing

(iii) Styles of Writing

(iv) Significance of writing skills for students

(v) Writing Conventions

(vi) Characteristics of good writing

(vii) Do’s and Don’ts of good writing

7. Précis Writing

(i) What is Précis writing?

(ii) Features of good Précis writing

(iii) How to write a Précis

(iv) Do’s and Don’ts of Précis writing

(v) Examples (Passages with Précis)

(vi) Exercises

8. Article Writing

(i) What is an Article?

(ii) Essential elements of Article Writing

(iii) Detailed Format

9. Report Writing

(i) What is a Report?

(ii) Essential elements of Report Writing

(iii) Kinds of Reports

(iv) Detailed Format for (iii) above

10. Writing Formal Letters

(i) Types of Letters

(ii) Detailed format for (i) above

(iii) Points to Remember

(iv) Sample Letters

(v) Exercises

11. Writing Formal Mails

(i) How to Write a Formal Mail?

(ii) Writing Effective Mails

(iii) Essential elements of Mails

(iv) Tips and Conventions of Mails

(v) Sample Mails

(vi) Exercises

12. Resume Writing

(i) Essential Elements of Resume

(ii) Resume Writing Tips and Conventions

(iii) Sample Resumes

(iv) Exercises

13. Meetings

(i) Notice

(ii) Agenda

(iii) Drafting minutes

(iv) Action Taken Report

Paper 3 - Syllabus

Paper 3: Business Mathematics, Logical Reasoning and Statistics


Part A: Business Mathematics (40 Marks)

Ratio and Proportion, Indices and Logarithms

20% - 30%

Equations and Matrices

Linear Inequalities with Objective Functions and Optimization w.r.t. objective function

Time value of Money

30% - 40%

Permutations and Combinations

30% - 50%

Sequence and Series

Sets, Relations and Functions

Basic Applications of Differential and Integral Calculus

Part B: Logical Reasoning (20 Marks)

Number series, Coding and Decoding and odd man out

60% - 70%

Direction Tests

Seating Arrangements

Blood Relations

30% - 40%


Part C: Statistics (40 Marks)

Statistical description of Data

45% - 50%

Measures of Central tendency and Dispersion


25% - 30%

Theoretical Distributions

Correlation and Regression

10% - 15%

Index Numbers and Time Series

10% - 15%

Paper 4 - Syllabus

Paper 4: Business Economics and Business and Commercial Knowledge


Part I: Business Economics (60 Marks)

Introduction to Business Economics

15% - 20%

Theory of Demand and Supply

35% - 40%

Theory of Production and Cost

Price Determination in Different Markets

25% - 30%

Business Cycles

15% - 20%

Part II: Business and Commercial Knowledge (40 Marks)

Business and Commercial Knowledge – An Introduction

15% - 18%

Business Environment

15% - 18%

Business Organizations

15% - 20%

Government Policies for Business Growth

15% - 18%

Organizations Facilitating Business

15% - 18%

Common Business Terminologies

15% - 18%


This is the entire course structure along with its weightage. Remember to study each subject in depth because they not only lay the foundation for your future but they also will help you score good marks.

Just a few instructions for you to remember: 

  • The time duration for papers 1 & 2 is 3 hours; Papers 3 & 4 have a time duration of 2 hours each.
  • Paper 1 and Paper 2 will be of the subjective type and Paper 3 and Paper 4 will be of objective type.
  • The objective type of questions will have negative marking for wrong answers. 1/4th of the marks will be deducted for each wrong answer.
  • Candidates must score a minimum of 40% marks in each paper and a minimum of  50% marks in aggregate of all the papers to pass the CA foundation exam.
  • CA Foundation exam is an offline exam and is conducted twice a year. The question paper will be either in English or Hindi languages.

Now that you have all the information needed, start preparing for your exam strategically. You can check out our free CA foundation demo course here and enroll in the full course here. All the very best!!